سخان المياه بالطاقة الشمسية
أنواع تجميع الطاقة الشمسية
There are basically three types of thermal solar collectors: flat-plate, evacuated-tube and concentrating.
Flat-Plate collectors comprise of an insulated, weatherproof box containing a dark absorber plate under one or more transparent or translucent covers. Water or heat conducting fluid passes through pipes located below the absorber plate. As the fluid flows through the pipes it is heated. This style of collector, although inferior in many ways to evacuated tube collectors, is still the most common type of collector in many countries.
Evacuated Tube solar water heaters are made up of rows of parallel, glass tubes. There are several types of evacuated tubes (sometimes also referred to as Solar Tubes).
Type 2 (Glass-Metal) tubes consist of a single glass tube. Inside the tube is a flat or curved aluminium plate which is attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The aluminium plate is generally coated with Tinox, or similar selective coating. These type of tubes are very efficient but can have problems relating to loss of vacuum. This is primarily due to the fact that their seal is glass to metal. The heat expansion rates of these two materials. Glass-glass tubes although not quite as efficient glass-metal tubes are generally more reliable and much cheaper.
Type 3 (Glass-glass - water flow path) tubes incorporate a water flow path into the tube itself. The problem with these tubes is that if a tube is ever damaged water will pour from the collector onto the roof and the collector must be "shut-down" until the tube is replaced.
Concentrating collectors for are usually parabolic troughs that use mirrored surfaces to concentrate the sun's energy on an absorber tube (called a receiver) containing a heat-transfer fluid, or the water itself. This type of solar collector is generally only used for commercial power production applications, because very high temperatures can be achieved. It is however reliant on direct sunlight and therefore does not perform well in overcast conditions.
Types of Solar Water Heating Systems
Solar water heating systems (SWHS) can be either active or passive. An active system uses an electric pump to circulate the fluid through the collector; a passive system has no pump and relies on thermo-siphoning to circulate water. The amount of hot water a solar water heater produces depends on the type and size of the system, the amount of sun available at the site, installation angle and orientation. SWHS are also characterized as open loop (also called "direct") or closed loop (also called "indirect"). An open-loop system circulates household (potable) water through the collector. A closed-loop system uses a heat-transfer fluid (water or diluted antifreeze) to collect heat and a heat exchanger to transfer the heat to the household water. A disadvantage of closed looped system is that efficiency is lost during the heat exchange process.
Active systems use electric pumps, valves, and controllers to circulate water or other heat-transfer fluids through the collectors. They are usually more expensive than passive systems but generally more efficient. Active systems are often easier to retrofit than passive systems because their storage tanks do not need to be installed above or close to the collectors. If installed using a PV panel to operate the pump, an active system can operate even during a power outage.
Open-Loop Active Systems
Closed-Loop Active Systems
Drainback systems use water as the heat-transfer fluid in the collector loop. A pump circulates the water through the solar water heater. When the pump is turned off, the solar water heater drains of water, which ensures freeze protection and also allows the system to turn off if the water in the storage tank becomes too hot. A problem with drainback systems is that the solar water heater installation and plumbing must be carefully positioned to allow complete drainage. The pump must also have sufficient head pressure to pump the water up to the collector each time the pump starts. Electricity usage is therefore slightly higher than a sealed closed or open loop.
Passive systems move household water or a heat-transfer fluid through the system without pumps. Passive systems have the advantage that electricity outage and electric pump breakdown are not issues. This makes passive systems generally more reliable, easier to maintain, and possibly longer lasting than active systems. Passive systems are often less expensive than active systems, but are also generally less efficient due to slower water flow rates through the system.